Binding Kinetics & Epitope Binning

Genovac offers three platforms for antibody characterization: binding kinetics, epitope binning, and sequence analysis. These platforms can be used at any stage in the development process to support lead candidate selection, as well as further characterization of candidates.


Binding kinetics measures the on rate (ka), off rate (kd), and affinity (KD) of an antibody for its antigen. Measurement of antibody binding kinetics (ka, kd) and affinity (KD) are crucial tools for selection of lead candidates and further characterization of those candidates. Results of a binding kinetics experiment are frequently used to make the first down-selection of candidate antibodies resulting from a discovery campaign. Additionally, the KD value for an antibody-antigen interaction is a key parameter for the design of epitope binning experiments.


Epitope binning tests pairwise combinations of antibodies for binding to an antigen. Antibodies that compete for binding to the antigen are grouped in a bin; antibodies within one bin bind to the same or overlapping antigens. And, because an antibody’s epitope typically correlates with its function, antibodies within a bin likely show similar function.


Genovac offers two platforms for binding kinetics and epitope binning: Carterra LSA high throughput SPR and Gator Bio’s Gator Plus biolayer interferometry (BLI). Both methods enable label-free binding kinetics and epitope binning using crude supernatants or purified antibodies, as well as very low sample volumes.

The Carterra LSA is ideally suited for large antibody libraries resulting from a discovery campaign:

  • up to 384 antibodies for binding kinetics
  • up to a 192 x 192 antibody array for epitope binning

The Gator Plus is a cost-effective option for smaller antibody sets:

  • up to 96 antibodies for binding kinetics
  • up to a 12 x 12 antibody array for epitope binning